EMA5001 Physical Property of Materials

Course Information

The physical properties of materials, focusing on principles of kinetics in phase transformations for engineering materials and their applications

Course Objective

The main objective of EMA5001 Physical Properties of Materials is to introduce graduate-level principles and practical applications of kinetics and phase transformation for engineering materials involving phenomena including diffusion, movement of interfaces, solidification, and nucleation and growth.  The course also aims to provide graduate-level training in critical thinking, mathematical analysis, and written communication skills focusing on problems of interests involving kinetics and phase transformation of engineering materials

Course Syllabus with Suggested Schedule

EMA 5001 Physical Properties of Materials SYLLABUS

Lecture Slides & Videos

Lecture slides (PDF) Videos on YouTube w/ closed caption (CC) Additional Info
Lecture 00  Course info Instructor, textbook, policy, website, and grading Bk
Hw1 answers & hints Course objectives Bk
Thermodynamics quick refresher Bk
Kinetics & phase transformation vs thermodynamics Bk
Example – steel hardness vs cooling rate Bk
Example – B4C morphology vs synthesis condition Bk
Topics covered and schedule Bk
Application examples for kinetics & phase transformation Bk
Lecture 01  Diffusion – introduction Diffusion definition and diffusing species Bk
Different ways to classify diffusion phenomena Bk
Descriptions-applications-characteristics of diffusion Bk
Down-hill diffusion Bk
Up-hill diffusion Bk
Binary phase diagrams with miscibility gap Bk
Additional considerations on down-hill vs up-hill diffusion Bk
Lecture 02  Atomistic mechanism of diffusion Diffusion mechanism: Vacancy vs Interstitial Bk
Atomistic model for interstitial diffusion & Fick’s 1st law Bk
Crystal structure and concentration effects on interstitial diffusion coefficient Bk
C interstitial diffusion in FCC-Fe Bk
Thermal activation of diffusion Bk
Lecture 03  Steady-state & non-steady-state diffusion – Fick’s 2nd law Steady state diffusion and concentration profile Bk
Non-steady state diffusion and Fick’s 2nd Law Bk
Change of concentration profile with time Bk
Diffusion example – Homogenization Bk
Diffusion example – Spin-on dopant Bk
Diffusion example – Infinite diffusion couple Bk
Diffusion example – Carburization and Decarburization Bk
Diffusion length Bk
Random walk and Diffusion length Bk
Lecture 04 Self-diffusion & vacancy diffusion Self diffusion Bk
Self diffusion coefficient and examples Bk
Vacancy diffusion and relationship with self diffusion Bk
Lecture 05  Substitutional diffusion in alloys Kirkendall effect Bk
Atoms asymmetric movement wrt a lattice plane Bk
Darken’s equations and Interdiffusion coefficient Bk
Considerations on interdiffusion coefficient Bk
Mobility and Diffusion coefficient relationship Bk
Thermodynamic factor & relationships between self-intrinsic-inter diffusion coefficients Bk
Lecture 06  Determine diffusion coefficient & Matano analysis Determine D when independent of concentration Bk
Boundary conditions for general isothermal interdiffusion Bk
Boltzmann transformation Bk
Matano analysis for D changing with concentration Bk
Matano interface and its significance Bk
Lecture 07  Short-circuit diffusion & reaction diffusion Grain boundary diffusion Bk
Temperature effect on grain bulk vs grain boundary diffusion Bk
Diffusion along dislocations Bk
Reaction diffusion Bk
Reaction diffusion – Interface velocity Bk
Down-hill diffusion in a single-phase region Bk
Down-hill diffusion involving a two-phase region Bk
Lecture 08  Diffusion – other problems Expectations about diffusion Bk
D for interstitial carbon atoms in iron: BCC-Fe vs FCC-Fe Bk
Successful jump frequency Bk
Kirkendall interface moving velocity Bk
Example for use of Darken’s equations  Bk
Lecture 09  Surface energy Classification of interfaces Bk
Liquid-gas interfacial energy & Surface tension Bk
Surface energy for FCC (111) plane Bk
Surface energy for FCC (002) plane Bk
Surface energy for FCC (220) plane Bk
Surface energy for a plane rotating away from a low index plane Bk
Wuff construction and crystal equilibrium shape Bk
Lecture 10  Grain boundaries Tilt grain boundary & Twist grain boundary Bk
Small angle grain boundaries Bk
Tilt GB energy vs misorientation angle Bk
Twin boundaries Bk
Measure GB energy vs misorientation angle Bk
Driving force for general GB migration Bk
Driving force for GB straightening Bk
Driving force for GB rotation Bk
Boundary between three neighboring grains Bk
Stability of grain shape Bk
Grain growth kinetics Bk
Grain boundary segregation Bk
Lecture 11  Interfaces and precipitate shape Coherent interface Bk
Semi-coherent interface Bk

TiC-ZrC semi-coherent interface from
Li et al. Ceram Int 41(10) 14258 (2015)

Incoherent interface Bk
Shapes of fully coherent and incoherent precipitates Bk
Shapes of partially coherent precipitates Bk
Shapes of precipitates at GB Bk
Volume strain on precipitate shape and Coherence loss in growth Bk
Solid-liquid interfaces Bk
Lecture 12  Solidification via homogeneous nucleation Solidification and Nucleation-growth process Bk
Classification of nucleation-growth type phase transformations Bk
Solidification examples Bk
Barriers in reaction or phase transformation Bk
Solidification via homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation Bk
Free energy change in solidification via homogeneous nucleation Bk
Driving force vs undercooling in solidification Bk
Critical nucleus size vs undercooling in solidification Bk
Nucleation barrier vs undercooling in solidification Bk
Critical nucleus size vs Max cluster size – Nucleation temperature Bk
Homogeneous nucleation rate Bk
Lecture 13 Solidification via heterogeneous nucleation Free energy change and critical nucleus size for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation Bk
S factor for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation Bk
Heterogeneous nucleation rate for solidification Bk
Other factors influencing heterogeneous nucleation rate Bk
Two growth modes of solid from liquid for a pure element Bk
Continuous growth for a pure element solid Bk
Lateral growth for a pure element solid Bk
Planar growth of a pure element solid into superheated liquid Bk
Dendritic growth of a pure element solid into supercooled liquid Bk
Lecture 14 Alloy solidification Alloy EQUILIBRIUM solidification Bk
Alloy solidification with stirring Bk
Alloy solidification with stirring – Coring Bk
Alloy solidification with stirring – Concentration profile change Bk
Alloy solidification with stirring – Analytical solution Bk
Alloy solidification – NO stirring in liquid Bk
Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification Bk
Lecture 15 Solidification other issues Eutectic solidification Bk
Zones formed during solidification and controlling cast structure Bk
  Expectations for solidification and homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation Bk
Lecture 16 Diffusional phase transformation Introduction to solid state phase transformation Bk
Characteristics of solid state phase transformation Bk
1st & 2nd order phase transformation Bk
Phase diagrams and common solid state phase transformations Bk
Lecture 17 Nucleation in precipitation Introduction to precipitation in solid Bk
Homogeneous nucleation in solid Bk
Driving force for homogeneous nucleation in solid precipitation Bk
Nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation Bk
Nose-shaped curve of nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation Bk
Heterogeneous precipitation Bk
Lecture 18  Growth of precipitates Precipitate growth and shape Bk
Diffusion controlled planar growth of incoherent precipitate Bk
Nose-shaped rate curve for precipitates growth Bk
Growth of other precipitates Bk
Lecture 19  Spinodal decomposition Introduction to Spinodal decomposition Bk
Solid miscibility gap – example of Cu-Ni Bk
Spinodal decomposition – free energy-composition curve Bk
Spinodal decomposition – Composition change over time Bk
Nucleation-growth within miscibility gap Bk
Spinodal decomposition vs nucleation-growth Bk
Driving force for spinodal decomposition Bk
Interfacial chemical energy and coherent strain energy Bk
Coherency strain and coherent spinodal Bk
Wavelength for composition modulation from spinodal decomposition Bk
Lecture 20  Massive transformation and particle coarsening Introduction to other phase transformations Bk
Precipitate coarsening Bk
Massive transformation Bk
Order-disorder transformation Bk
Lecture 21  Martensite transformation Fe-Fe3C phase diagram and Martensite transformation Bk
Martensite transformation – At low T to meta-stable phase Bk
Martensite transformation – Surface roughness and microstructures Bk
Martensite transformation – Diffusionless and Athermal Bk
Lattice misfit of C in Fe and BCT structure Bk
Crystallography considerations for Martensite transformation in carbon steel Bk
Lecture 22 Kinetics trivia
Lecture 23 Models for transformation kinetics TTT and CT curves Bk
Nucleation and growth kinetics for very low conversion Bk
Nucleation and growth kinetics for high conversion – JMA equation Bk
Nucleation and growth kinetics with site saturation Bk
Nucleation and growth kinetics with diffusion control Bk
Interpretations of JMA equation exponent factor n Bk
Diffusion controlled 1D growth kinetics Bk
Diffusion controlled shrinking core model Bk
Interface controlled shrinking core model Bk
Summary of kinetic models Bk
Lecture 24 Example of SiC formation kinetics and mechanism
Lecture 25 Expectations about solid state phase transformation