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Lecture 00 Course info 
Instructor, textbook, policy, website, and grading 
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Hw1 answers & hints 
Course objectives 
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Thermodynamics quick refresher 
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Kinetics & phase transformation vs thermodynamics 
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Example – steel hardness vs cooling rate 
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Example – B_{4}C morphology vs synthesis condition 
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Topics covered and schedule 
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Application examples for kinetics & phase transformation 
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Lecture 01 Diffusion – introduction 
Diffusion definition and diffusing species 
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Different ways to classify diffusion phenomena 
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Descriptionsapplicationscharacteristics of diffusion 
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Downhill diffusion 
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Uphill diffusion 
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Binary phase diagrams with miscibility gap 
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Additional considerations on downhill vs uphill diffusion 
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Lecture 02 Atomistic mechanism of diffusion 
Diffusion mechanism: Vacancy vs Interstitial 
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Atomistic model for interstitial diffusion & Fick’s 1st law 
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Crystal structure and concentration effects on interstitial diffusion coefficient 
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C interstitial diffusion in FCCFe 
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Thermal activation of diffusion 
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Lecture 03 Steadystate & nonsteadystate diffusion – Fick’s 2nd law 
Steady state diffusion and concentration profile 
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Nonsteady state diffusion and Fick’s 2nd Law 
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Change of concentration profile with time 
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Diffusion example – Homogenization 
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Diffusion example – Spinon dopant 
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Diffusion example – Infinite diffusion couple 
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Diffusion example – Carburization and Decarburization 
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Diffusion length 
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Random walk and Diffusion length 
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Lecture 04 Selfdiffusion & vacancy diffusion 
Self diffusion 
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Self diffusion coefficient and examples 
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Vacancy diffusion and relationship with self diffusion 
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Lecture 05 Substitutional diffusion in alloys 
Kirkendall effect 
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Atoms asymmetric movement wrt a lattice plane 
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Darken’s equations and Interdiffusion coefficient 
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Considerations on interdiffusion coefficient 
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Mobility and Diffusion coefficient relationship 
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Thermodynamic factor & relationships between selfintrinsicinter diffusion coefficients 
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Lecture 06 Determine diffusion coefficient & Matano analysis 
Determine D when independent of concentration 
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Boundary conditions for general isothermal interdiffusion 
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Boltzmann transformation 
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Matano analysis for D changing with concentration 
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Matano interface and its significance 
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Lecture 07 Shortcircuit diffusion & reaction diffusion 
Grain boundary diffusion 
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Temperature effect on grain bulk vs grain boundary diffusion 
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Diffusion along dislocations 
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Reaction diffusion 
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Reaction diffusion – Interface velocity 
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Downhill diffusion in a singlephase region 
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Downhill diffusion involving a twophase region 
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Lecture 08 Diffusion – other problems 
Expectations about diffusion 
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D for interstitial carbon atoms in iron: BCCFe vs FCCFe 
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Successful jump frequency 
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Kirkendall interface moving velocity 
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Example for use of Darken’s equations 
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Lecture 09 Surface energy 
Classification of interfaces 
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Liquidgas interfacial energy & Surface tension 
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Surface energy for FCC (111) plane 
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Surface energy for FCC (002) plane 
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Surface energy for FCC (220) plane 
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Surface energy for a plane rotating away from a low index plane 
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Wuff construction and crystal equilibrium shape 
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Lecture 10 Grain boundaries 
Tilt grain boundary & Twist grain boundary 
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Small angle grain boundaries 
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Tilt GB energy vs misorientation angle 
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Twin boundaries 
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Measure GB energy vs misorientation angle 
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Driving force for general GB migration 
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Driving force for GB straightening 
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Driving force for GB rotation 
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Boundary between three neighboring grains 
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Stability of grain shape 
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Grain growth kinetics 
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Grain boundary segregation 
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Lecture 11 Interfaces and precipitate shape 
Coherent interface 
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Semicoherent interface 
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Incoherent interface 
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Shapes of fully coherent and incoherent precipitates 
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Shapes of partially coherent precipitates 
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Shapes of precipitates at GB 
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Volume strain on precipitate shape and Coherence loss in growth 
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Solidliquid interfaces 
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Lecture 12 Solidification via homogeneous nucleation 
Solidification and Nucleationgrowth process 
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Classification of nucleationgrowth type phase transformations 
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Solidification examples 
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Barriers in reaction or phase transformation 
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Solidification via homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation 
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Free energy change in solidification via homogeneous nucleation 
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Driving force vs undercooling in solidification 
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Critical nucleus size vs undercooling in solidification 
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Nucleation barrier vs undercooling in solidification 
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Critical nucleus size vs Max cluster size – Nucleation temperature 
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Homogeneous nucleation rate 
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Lecture 13 Solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 
Free energy change and critical nucleus size for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 
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S factor for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 
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Heterogeneous nucleation rate for solidification 
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Other factors influencing heterogeneous nucleation rate 
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Two growth modes of solid from liquid for a pure element 
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Continuous growth for a pure element solid 
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Lateral growth for a pure element solid 
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Planar growth of a pure element solid into superheated liquid 
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Dendritic growth of a pure element solid into supercooled liquid 
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Lecture 14 Alloy solidification 
Alloy EQUILIBRIUM solidification 
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Alloy solidification with stirring 
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Alloy solidification with stirring – Coring 
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Alloy solidification with stirring – Concentration profile change 
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Alloy solidification with stirring – Analytical solution 
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Alloy solidification – NO stirring in liquid 
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Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification 
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Lecture 15 Solidification other issues 
Eutectic solidification 
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Zones formed during solidification and controlling cast structure 
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Expectations for solidification and homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation 
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Lecture 16 Diffusional phase transformation 
Introduction to solid state phase transformation 
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Characteristics of solid state phase transformation 
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1st & 2nd order phase transformation 
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Phase diagrams and common solid state phase transformations 
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Lecture 17 Nucleation in precipitation 
Introduction to precipitation in solid 
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Homogeneous nucleation in solid 
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Driving force for homogeneous nucleation in solid precipitation 
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Nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation 
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Noseshaped curve of nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation 
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Heterogeneous precipitation 
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Lecture 18 Growth of precipitates 
Precipitate growth and shape 
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Diffusion controlled planar growth of incoherent precipitate 
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Noseshaped rate curve for precipitates growth 
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Growth of other precipitates 
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Lecture 19 Spinodal decomposition 
Introduction to Spinodal decomposition 
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Solid miscibility gap – example of CuNi 
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Spinodal decomposition – free energycomposition curve 
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Spinodal decomposition – Composition change over time 
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Nucleationgrowth within miscibility gap 
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Spinodal decomposition vs nucleationgrowth 
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Driving force for spinodal decomposition 
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Interfacial chemical energy and coherent strain energy 
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Coherency strain and coherent spinodal 
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Wavelength for composition modulation from spinodal decomposition 
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Lecture 20 Massive transformation and particle coarsening 
Introduction to other phase transformations 
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Precipitate coarsening 
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Massive transformation 
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Orderdisorder transformation 
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Lecture 21 Martensite transformation 
FeFe3C phase diagram and Martensite transformation 
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Martensite transformation – At low T to metastable phase 
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Martensite transformation – Surface roughness and microstructures 
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Martensite transformation – Diffusionless and Athermal 
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Lattice misfit of C in Fe and BCT structure 
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Crystallography considerations for Martensite transformation in carbon steel 
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Lecture 22 Kinetics trivia 


Lecture 23 Models for transformation kinetics 
TTT and CT curves 
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Nucleation and growth kinetics for very low conversion 
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Nucleation and growth kinetics for high conversion – JMA equation 
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Nucleation and growth kinetics with site saturation 
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Nucleation and growth kinetics with diffusion control 
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Interpretations of JMA equation exponent factor n 
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Diffusion controlled 1D growth kinetics 
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Diffusion controlled shrinking core model 
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Interface controlled shrinking core model 
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Summary of kinetic models 
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Lecture 24 Example of SiC formation kinetics and mechanism 


Lecture 25 Expectations about solid state phase transformation 

