EMA5001 Physical Property of Materials

Course Information

The physical properties of materials, focusing on principles of kinetics in phase transformations for engineering materials and their applications

Course Objective

The main objective of EMA5001 Physical Properties of Materials is to introduce graduate-level principles and practical applications of kinetics and phase transformation for engineering materials involving phenomena including diffusion, movement of interfaces, solidification, and nucleation and growth.  The course also aims to provide graduate-level training in critical thinking, mathematical analysis, and written communication skills focusing on problems of interests involving kinetics and phase transformation of engineering materials

Course Syllabus

EMA 5001 Physical Properties of Materials SYLLABUS

Course Schedule

 

 

 

 

Lecture Slides & Videos

Lecture slides (PDF) Videos on Dr. Cheng Onedrive Videos on YouTube w/ closed caption (CC)
Lecture 00  Course info Instructor, Textbook, Policy, Website, and Grading Instructor, Textbook, Policy, Website, and Grading
Hw1 answers & hints Term paper instructions Term paper instructions
Course objectives Course objectives
Thermodynamics quick refresher Thermodynamics quick refresher
Kinetics & Phase transformation vs Thermodynamics Kinetics & Phase transformation vs Thermodynamics
Example – steel hardness vs cooling rate Example – steel hardness vs cooling rate
Example – B4C morphology vs synthesis condition Example – B4C morphology vs synthesis condition
Topics covered and Schedule Topics covered and Schedule
Application examples for Kinetics & Phase Transformation Application examples for Kinetics & Phase Transformation
Lecture 01  Diffusion – introduction Diffusion definition and diffusing species Diffusion definition and diffusing species
Different ways to classify diffusion phenomena Different ways to classify diffusion phenomena
Descriptions-applications-characteristics of diffusion Descriptions-applications-characteristics of diffusion
Down-hill diffusion Down-hill diffusion
Up-hill diffusion Up-hill diffusion
Binary phase diagrams with miscibility gap Binary phase diagrams with miscibility gap
Additional considerations on down-hill vs up-hill diffusion Additional considerations on down-hill vs up-hill diffusion
Lecture 02  Atomistic mechanism of diffusion Diffusion mechanism: Vacancy vs Interstitial Diffusion mechanism: Vacancy vs Interstitial
Atomistic model for interstitial diffusion & Fick’s 1st law Atomistic model for interstitial diffusion & Fick’s 1st law
Crystal structure and concentration effects on interstitial diffusion coefficient Crystal structure and concentration effects on interstitial diffusion coefficient
C interstitial diffusion in FCC-Fe C interstitial diffusion in FCC-Fe
Thermal activation of diffusion Thermal activation of diffusion
Lecture 03  Steady-state & non-steady-state diffusion – Fick’s 2nd law Steady state diffusion and concentration profile Steady state diffusion and concentration profile
Non-steady state diffusion and Fick’s 2nd Law Non-steady state diffusion and Fick’s 2nd Law
Change of concentration profile with time Change of concentration profile with time
Diffusion example – Homogenization Diffusion example – Homogenization
Diffusion example – Spin-on dopant Diffusion example – Spin-on dopant
Diffusion example – Infinite diffusion couple Diffusion example – Infinite diffusion couple
Diffusion example – Carburization and Decarburization Diffusion example – Carburization and Decarburization
Diffusion length Diffusion length
Random walk and Diffusion length Random walk and Diffusion length
Lecture 04 Self-diffusion & vacancy diffusion Self diffusion Self diffusion
Self diffusion coefficient and examples Self diffusion coefficient and examples
Vacancy diffusion and relationship with self diffusion Vacancy diffusion and relationship with self diffusion
Lecture 05  Substitutional diffusion in alloys Kirkendall effect Kirkendall effect
Atoms asymmetric movement wrt a lattice plane Atoms asymmetric movement wrt a lattice plane
Darken’s equations and Interdiffusion coefficient Darken’s equations and Interdiffusion coefficient
Considerations on interdiffusion coefficient Considerations on interdiffusion coefficient
Mobility and Diffusion coefficient relationship Mobility and Diffusion coefficient relationship
Thermodynamic factor & relationships between self-intrinsic-inter diffusion coefficients Thermodynamic factor & relationships between self-intrinsic-inter diffusion coefficients
Lecture 06  Determine diffusion coefficient & Matano analysis Determine D when independent of concentration Determine D when independent of concentration
Boundary conditions for general isothermal interdiffusion Boundary conditions for general isothermal interdiffusion
Boltzmann transformation Boltzmann transformation
Matano analysis for D changing with concentration Matano analysis for D changing with concentration
Matano interface and its significance Matano interface and its significance
Lecture 07  Short-circuit diffusion & reaction diffusion Grain boundary diffusion Grain boundary diffusion
Temperature effect on grain bulk vs grain boundary diffusion Temperature effect on grain bulk vs grain boundary diffusion
Diffusion along dislocations Diffusion along dislocations
Reaction diffusion Reaction diffusion
Reaction diffusion – Interface velocity Reaction diffusion – Interface velocity
Down-hill diffusion in a single-phase region Down-hill diffusion in a single-phase region
Down-hill diffusion involving a two-phase region Down-hill diffusion involving a two-phase region
Lecture 08  Diffusion – other problems Expectations about diffusion Expectations about diffusion
D for interstitial carbon atoms in iron: BCC-Fe vs FCC-Fe D for interstitial carbon atoms in iron: BCC-Fe vs FCC-Fe
Successful jump frequency Successful jump frequency
Kirkendall interface moving velocity Kirkendall interface moving velocity
Example for use of Darken’s equations Example for use of Darken’s equations
Lecture 09  Surface energy Classification of interfaces Classification of interfaces
Liquid-gas interfacial energy & Surface tension Liquid-gas interfacial energy & Surface tension
Surface energy for FCC (111) plane Surface energy for FCC (111) plane
Surface energy for FCC (002) plane Surface energy for FCC (002) plane
Surface energy for FCC (220) plane Surface energy for FCC (220) plane
Surface energy for a plane rotating away from a low index plane Surface energy for a plane rotating away from a low index plane
Wuff construction and crystal equilibrium shape Wuff construction and crystal equilibrium shape
Lecture 10  Grain boundaries Tilt grain boundary & Twist grain boundary Tilt grain boundary & Twist grain boundary
Small angle grain boundaries Small angle grain boundaries
Tilt GB energy vs misorientation angle Tilt GB energy vs misorientation angle
Twin boundaries Twin boundaries
Measure GB energy vs misorientation angle Measure GB energy vs misorientation angle
Driving force for general GB migration Driving force for general GB migration
Driving force for GB straightening Driving force for GB straightening
Driving force for GB rotation Driving force for GB rotation
Boundary between three neighboring grains Boundary between three neighboring grains
Stability of grain shape Stability of grain shape
Grain growth kinetics Grain growth kinetics
Grain boundary segregation Grain boundary segregation
Lecture 11  Interfaces and precipitate shape Coherent interface Coherent interface
Semi-coherent interface Semi-coherent interface
Incoherent interface Incoherent interface
Shapes of fully coherent and incoherent precipitates Shapes of fully coherent and incoherent precipitates
Shapes of partially coherent precipitates Shapes of partially coherent precipitates
Shapes of precipitates at GB Shapes of precipitates at GB
Volume strain on precipitate shape and Coherence loss in growth Volume strain on precipitate shape and Coherence loss in growth
Solid-liquid interfaces Solid-liquid interfaces
Lecture 12  Solidification via homogeneous nucleation Solidification and Nucleation-growth process Solidification and Nucleation-growth process
Classification of nucleation-growth type phase transformations Classification of nucleation-growth type phase transformations
Solidification examples Solidification examples
Barriers in reaction or phase transformation Barriers in reaction or phase transformation
Solidification via homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation Solidification via homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation
Free energy change in solidification via homogeneous nucleation Free energy change in solidification via homogeneous nucleation
Driving force vs undercooling in solidification Driving force vs undercooling in solidification
Critical nucleus size vs undercooling in solidification Critical nucleus size vs undercooling in solidification
Nucleation barrier vs undercooling in solidification Nucleation barrier vs undercooling in solidification
Critical nucleus size vs Max cluster size – Nucleation temperature Critical nucleus size vs Max cluster size – Nucleation temperature
Homogeneous nucleation rate Homogeneous nucleation rate
Lecture 13 Solidification via heterogeneous nucleation Free energy change and critical nucleus size for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation Free energy change and critical nucleus size for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation
S factor for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation S factor for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation
Heterogeneous nucleation rate for solidification Heterogeneous nucleation rate for solidification
Other factors influencing heterogeneous nucleation rate Other factors influencing heterogeneous nucleation rate
Two growth modes of solid from liquid for a pure element Two growth modes of solid from liquid for a pure element
Continuous growth for a pure element solid Continuous growth for a pure element solid
Lateral growth for a pure element solid Lateral growth for a pure element solid
Planar growth of a pure element solid into superheated liquid Planar growth of a pure element solid into superheated liquid
Dendritic growth of a pure element solid into supercooled liquid Dendritic growth of a pure element solid into supercooled liquid
Lecture 14 Alloy solidification Alloy EQUILIBRIUM solidification Alloy EQUILIBRIUM solidification
Alloy solidification with stirring Alloy solidification with stirring
Alloy solidification with stirring – Coring Alloy solidification with stirring – Coring
Alloy solidification with stirring – Concentration profile change Alloy solidification with stirring – Concentration profile change
Alloy solidification with stirring – Analytical solution Alloy solidification with stirring – Analytical solution
Alloy solidification – NO stirring in liquid Alloy solidification – NO stirring in liquid
Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification
Lecture 15 Solidification other issues Eutectic solidification Eutectic solidification
Zones formed during solidification and controlling cast structure Zones formed during solidification and controlling cast structure
  Expectations for solidification and homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation Expectations for solidification and homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation
Lecture 16 Diffusional phase transformation Introduction to solid state phase transformation Introduction to solid state phase transformation
Characteristics of solid state phase transformation Characteristics of solid state phase transformation
1st & 2nd order phase transformation 1st & 2nd order phase transformation
Phase diagrams and common solid state phase transformations Phase diagrams and common solid state phase transformations
Lecture 17 Nucleation in precipitation Introduction to precipitation in solid Introduction to precipitation in solid
Homogeneous nucleation in solid Homogeneous nucleation in solid
Driving force for homogeneous nucleation in solid precipitation Driving force for homogeneous nucleation in solid precipitation
Nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation Nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation
Nose-shaped curve of nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation Nose-shaped curve of nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation
Heterogeneous precipitation Heterogeneous precipitation
Lecture 18  Growth of precipitates Precipitate growth and shape Precipitate growth and shape
Diffusion controlled planar growth of incoherent precipitate Diffusion controlled planar growth of incoherent precipitate
Nose-shaped rate curve for precipitates growth Nose-shaped rate curve for precipitates growth
Growth of other precipitates Growth of other precipitates
Lecture 19  Spinodal decomposition Introduction to Spinodal decomposition Introduction to Spinodal decomposition
Solid miscibility gap – example of Cu-Ni Solid miscibility gap – example of Cu-Ni
Spinodal decomposition – free energy-composition curve Spinodal decomposition – free energy-composition curve
Spinodal decomposition – Composition change over time Spinodal decomposition – Composition change over time
Nucleation-growth within miscibility gap Nucleation-growth within miscibility gap
Spinodal decomposition vs nucleation-growth Spinodal decomposition vs nucleation-growth
Driving force for spinodal decomposition Driving force for spinodal decomposition
Interfacial chemical energy and coherent strain energy Interfacial chemical energy and coherent strain energy
Coherency strain and coherent spinodal Coherency strain and coherent spinodal
Wavelength for composition modulation from spinodal decomposition Wavelength for composition modulation from spinodal decomposition
Lecture 20  Massive transformation and particle coarsening Introduction to other phase transformations Introduction to other phase transformations
Precipitate coarsening Precipitate coarsening
Massive transformation Massive transformation
Order-disorder transformation Order-disorder transformation
Lecture 21  Martensite transformation Fe-Fe3C phase diagram and Martensite transformation Fe-Fe3C phase diagram and Martensite transformation
Martensite transformation – At low T to meta-stable phase Martensite transformation – At low T to meta-stable phase
Martensite transformation – Surface roughness and microstructures Martensite transformation – Surface roughness and microstructures
Martensite transformation – Diffusionless and Athermal Martensite transformation – Diffusionless and Athermal
Lattice misfit of C in Fe and BCT structure Lattice misfit of C in Fe and BCT structure
Crystallography considerations for Martensite transformation in carbon steel Crystallography considerations for Martensite transformation in carbon steel
Lecture 22 Kinetics trivia
Lecture 23 Models for transformation kinetics TTT and CT curves TTT and CT curves
Nucleation and growth kinetics for very low conversion Nucleation and growth kinetics for very low conversion
Nucleation and growth kinetics for high conversion – JMA equation Nucleation and growth kinetics for high conversion – JMA equation
Nucleation and growth kinetics with site saturation Nucleation and growth kinetics with site saturation
Nucleation and growth kinetics with diffusion control Nucleation and growth kinetics with diffusion control
Interpretations of JMA equation exponent factor n Interpretations of JMA equation exponent factor n
Diffusion controlled 1D growth kinetics Diffusion controlled 1D growth kinetics
Diffusion controlled shrinking core model Diffusion controlled shrinking core model
Interface controlled shrinking core model Interface controlled shrinking core model
Summary of kinetic models Summary of kinetic models
Lecture 24 Example of SiC formation kinetics and mechanism
Lecture 25 Expectations about solid state phase transformation