Lecture slides (PDF) 
Videos on Dr. Cheng Onedrive 
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Lecture 00 Course info 
Instructor, Textbook, Policy, Website, and Grading 
Instructor, Textbook, Policy, Website, and Grading 
Hw1 answers & hints 
Term paper instructions 
Term paper instructions 

Course objectives 
Course objectives 

Thermodynamics quick refresher 
Thermodynamics quick refresher 

Kinetics & Phase transformation vs Thermodynamics 
Kinetics & Phase transformation vs Thermodynamics 

Example – steel hardness vs cooling rate 
Example – steel hardness vs cooling rate 

Example – B_{4}C morphology vs synthesis condition 
Example – B_{4}C morphology vs synthesis condition 

Topics covered and Schedule 
Topics covered and Schedule 

Application examples for Kinetics & Phase Transformation 
Application examples for Kinetics & Phase Transformation 
Lecture 01 Diffusion – introduction 
Diffusion definition and diffusing species 
Diffusion definition and diffusing species 

Different ways to classify diffusion phenomena 
Different ways to classify diffusion phenomena 

Descriptionsapplicationscharacteristics of diffusion 
Descriptionsapplicationscharacteristics of diffusion 

Downhill diffusion 
Downhill diffusion 

Uphill diffusion 
Uphill diffusion 

Binary phase diagrams with miscibility gap 
Binary phase diagrams with miscibility gap 

Additional considerations on downhill vs uphill diffusion 
Additional considerations on downhill vs uphill diffusion 
Lecture 02 Atomistic mechanism of diffusion 
Diffusion mechanism: Vacancy vs Interstitial 
Diffusion mechanism: Vacancy vs Interstitial 

Atomistic model for interstitial diffusion & Fick’s 1st law 
Atomistic model for interstitial diffusion & Fick’s 1st law 

Crystal structure and concentration effects on interstitial diffusion coefficient 
Crystal structure and concentration effects on interstitial diffusion coefficient 

C interstitial diffusion in FCCFe 
C interstitial diffusion in FCCFe 

Thermal activation of diffusion 
Thermal activation of diffusion 
Lecture 03 Steadystate & nonsteadystate diffusion – Fick’s 2nd law 
Steady state diffusion and concentration profile 
Steady state diffusion and concentration profile 

Nonsteady state diffusion and Fick’s 2nd Law 
Nonsteady state diffusion and Fick’s 2nd Law 

Change of concentration profile with time 
Change of concentration profile with time 

Diffusion example – Homogenization 
Diffusion example – Homogenization 

Diffusion example – Spinon dopant 
Diffusion example – Spinon dopant 

Diffusion example – Infinite diffusion couple 
Diffusion example – Infinite diffusion couple 

Diffusion example – Carburization and Decarburization 
Diffusion example – Carburization and Decarburization 

Diffusion length 
Diffusion length 

Random walk and Diffusion length 
Random walk and Diffusion length 
Lecture 04 Selfdiffusion & vacancy diffusion 
Self diffusion 
Self diffusion 

Self diffusion coefficient and examples 
Self diffusion coefficient and examples 

Vacancy diffusion and relationship with self diffusion 
Vacancy diffusion and relationship with self diffusion 
Lecture 05 Substitutional diffusion in alloys 
Kirkendall effect 
Kirkendall effect 

Atoms asymmetric movement wrt a lattice plane 
Atoms asymmetric movement wrt a lattice plane 

Darken’s equations and Interdiffusion coefficient 
Darken’s equations and Interdiffusion coefficient 

Considerations on interdiffusion coefficient 
Considerations on interdiffusion coefficient 

Mobility and Diffusion coefficient relationship 
Mobility and Diffusion coefficient relationship 

Thermodynamic factor & relationships between selfintrinsicinter diffusion coefficients 
Thermodynamic factor & relationships between selfintrinsicinter diffusion coefficients 
Lecture 06 Determine diffusion coefficient & Matano analysis 
Determine D when independent of concentration 
Determine D when independent of concentration 

Boundary conditions for general isothermal interdiffusion 
Boundary conditions for general isothermal interdiffusion 

Boltzmann transformation 
Boltzmann transformation 

Matano analysis for D changing with concentration 
Matano analysis for D changing with concentration 

Matano interface and its significance 
Matano interface and its significance 
Lecture 07 Shortcircuit diffusion & reaction diffusion 
Grain boundary diffusion 
Grain boundary diffusion 

Temperature effect on grain bulk vs grain boundary diffusion 
Temperature effect on grain bulk vs grain boundary diffusion 

Diffusion along dislocations 
Diffusion along dislocations 

Reaction diffusion 
Reaction diffusion 

Reaction diffusion – Interface velocity 
Reaction diffusion – Interface velocity 

Downhill diffusion in a singlephase region 
Downhill diffusion in a singlephase region 

Downhill diffusion involving a twophase region 
Downhill diffusion involving a twophase region 
Lecture 08 Diffusion – other problems 
Expectations about diffusion 
Expectations about diffusion 

D for interstitial carbon atoms in iron: BCCFe vs FCCFe 
D for interstitial carbon atoms in iron: BCCFe vs FCCFe 

Successful jump frequency 
Successful jump frequency 

Kirkendall interface moving velocity 
Kirkendall interface moving velocity 

Example for use of Darken’s equations 
Example for use of Darken’s equations 
Lecture 09 Surface energy 
Classification of interfaces 
Classification of interfaces 

Liquidgas interfacial energy & Surface tension 
Liquidgas interfacial energy & Surface tension 

Surface energy for FCC (111) plane 
Surface energy for FCC (111) plane 

Surface energy for FCC (002) plane 
Surface energy for FCC (002) plane 

Surface energy for FCC (220) plane 
Surface energy for FCC (220) plane 

Surface energy for a plane rotating away from a low index plane 
Surface energy for a plane rotating away from a low index plane 

Wuff construction and crystal equilibrium shape 
Wuff construction and crystal equilibrium shape 
Lecture 10 Grain boundaries 
Tilt grain boundary & Twist grain boundary 
Tilt grain boundary & Twist grain boundary 

Small angle grain boundaries 
Small angle grain boundaries 

Tilt GB energy vs misorientation angle 
Tilt GB energy vs misorientation angle 

Twin boundaries 
Twin boundaries 

Measure GB energy vs misorientation angle 
Measure GB energy vs misorientation angle 

Driving force for general GB migration 
Driving force for general GB migration 

Driving force for GB straightening 
Driving force for GB straightening 

Driving force for GB rotation 
Driving force for GB rotation 

Boundary between three neighboring grains 
Boundary between three neighboring grains 

Stability of grain shape 
Stability of grain shape 

Grain growth kinetics 
Grain growth kinetics 

Grain boundary segregation 
Grain boundary segregation 
Lecture 11 Interfaces and precipitate shape 
Coherent interface 
Coherent interface 

Semicoherent interface 
Semicoherent interface 

Incoherent interface 
Incoherent interface 

Shapes of fully coherent and incoherent precipitates 
Shapes of fully coherent and incoherent precipitates 

Shapes of partially coherent precipitates 
Shapes of partially coherent precipitates 

Shapes of precipitates at GB 
Shapes of precipitates at GB 

Volume strain on precipitate shape and Coherence loss in growth 
Volume strain on precipitate shape and Coherence loss in growth 

Solidliquid interfaces 
Solidliquid interfaces 
Lecture 12 Solidification via homogeneous nucleation 
Solidification and Nucleationgrowth process 
Solidification and Nucleationgrowth process 

Classification of nucleationgrowth type phase transformations 
Classification of nucleationgrowth type phase transformations 

Solidification examples 
Solidification examples 

Barriers in reaction or phase transformation 
Barriers in reaction or phase transformation 

Solidification via homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation 
Solidification via homogeneous vs heterogeneous nucleation 

Free energy change in solidification via homogeneous nucleation 
Free energy change in solidification via homogeneous nucleation 

Driving force vs undercooling in solidification 
Driving force vs undercooling in solidification 

Critical nucleus size vs undercooling in solidification 
Critical nucleus size vs undercooling in solidification 

Nucleation barrier vs undercooling in solidification 
Nucleation barrier vs undercooling in solidification 

Critical nucleus size vs Max cluster size – Nucleation temperature 
Critical nucleus size vs Max cluster size – Nucleation temperature 

Homogeneous nucleation rate 
Homogeneous nucleation rate 
Lecture 13 Solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 
Free energy change and critical nucleus size for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 
Free energy change and critical nucleus size for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 

S factor for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 
S factor for solidification via heterogeneous nucleation 

Heterogeneous nucleation rate for solidification 
Heterogeneous nucleation rate for solidification 

Other factors influencing heterogeneous nucleation rate 
Other factors influencing heterogeneous nucleation rate 

Two growth modes of solid from liquid for a pure element 
Two growth modes of solid from liquid for a pure element 

Continuous growth for a pure element solid 
Continuous growth for a pure element solid 

Lateral growth for a pure element solid 
Lateral growth for a pure element solid 

Planar growth of a pure element solid into superheated liquid 
Planar growth of a pure element solid into superheated liquid 

Dendritic growth of a pure element solid into supercooled liquid 
Dendritic growth of a pure element solid into supercooled liquid 
Lecture 14 Alloy solidification 
Alloy EQUILIBRIUM solidification 
Alloy EQUILIBRIUM solidification 

Alloy solidification with stirring 
Alloy solidification with stirring 

Alloy solidification with stirring – Coring 
Alloy solidification with stirring – Coring 

Alloy solidification with stirring – Concentration profile change 
Alloy solidification with stirring – Concentration profile change 

Alloy solidification with stirring – Analytical solution 
Alloy solidification with stirring – Analytical solution 

Alloy solidification – NO stirring in liquid 
Alloy solidification – NO stirring in liquid 

Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification 
Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification 
Lecture 15 Solidification other issues 
Eutectic solidification 
Eutectic solidification 

Zones formed during solidification and controlling cast structure 
Zones formed during solidification and controlling cast structure 

Expectations for solidification and homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation 
Expectations for solidification and homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation 
Lecture 16 Diffusional phase transformation 
Introduction to solid state phase transformation 
Introduction to solid state phase transformation 

Characteristics of solid state phase transformation 
Characteristics of solid state phase transformation 

1st & 2nd order phase transformation 
1st & 2nd order phase transformation 

Phase diagrams and common solid state phase transformations 
Phase diagrams and common solid state phase transformations 
Lecture 17 Nucleation in precipitation 
Introduction to precipitation in solid 
Introduction to precipitation in solid 

Homogeneous nucleation in solid 
Homogeneous nucleation in solid 

Driving force for homogeneous nucleation in solid precipitation 
Driving force for homogeneous nucleation in solid precipitation 

Nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation 
Nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation 

Noseshaped curve of nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation 
Noseshaped curve of nucleation rate for homogeneous precipitation 

Heterogeneous precipitation 
Heterogeneous precipitation 
Lecture 18 Growth of precipitates 
Precipitate growth and shape 
Precipitate growth and shape 

Diffusion controlled planar growth of incoherent precipitate 
Diffusion controlled planar growth of incoherent precipitate 

Noseshaped rate curve for precipitates growth 
Noseshaped rate curve for precipitates growth 

Growth of other precipitates 
Growth of other precipitates 
Lecture 19 Spinodal decomposition 
Introduction to Spinodal decomposition 
Introduction to Spinodal decomposition 

Solid miscibility gap – example of CuNi 
Solid miscibility gap – example of CuNi 

Spinodal decomposition – free energycomposition curve 
Spinodal decomposition – free energycomposition curve 

Spinodal decomposition – Composition change over time 
Spinodal decomposition – Composition change over time 

Nucleationgrowth within miscibility gap 
Nucleationgrowth within miscibility gap 

Spinodal decomposition vs nucleationgrowth 
Spinodal decomposition vs nucleationgrowth 

Driving force for spinodal decomposition 
Driving force for spinodal decomposition 

Interfacial chemical energy and coherent strain energy 
Interfacial chemical energy and coherent strain energy 

Coherency strain and coherent spinodal 
Coherency strain and coherent spinodal 

Wavelength for composition modulation from spinodal decomposition 
Wavelength for composition modulation from spinodal decomposition 
Lecture 20 Massive transformation and particle coarsening 
Introduction to other phase transformations 
Introduction to other phase transformations 

Precipitate coarsening 
Precipitate coarsening 

Massive transformation 
Massive transformation 

Orderdisorder transformation 
Orderdisorder transformation 
Lecture 21 Martensite transformation 
FeFe3C phase diagram and Martensite transformation 
FeFe3C phase diagram and Martensite transformation 

Martensite transformation – At low T to metastable phase 
Martensite transformation – At low T to metastable phase 

Martensite transformation – Surface roughness and microstructures 
Martensite transformation – Surface roughness and microstructures 

Martensite transformation – Diffusionless and Athermal 
Martensite transformation – Diffusionless and Athermal 

Lattice misfit of C in Fe and BCT structure 
Lattice misfit of C in Fe and BCT structure 

Crystallography considerations for Martensite transformation in carbon steel 
Crystallography considerations for Martensite transformation in carbon steel 
Lecture 22 Kinetics trivia 


Lecture 23 Models for transformation kinetics 
TTT and CT curves 
TTT and CT curves 

Nucleation and growth kinetics for very low conversion 
Nucleation and growth kinetics for very low conversion 

Nucleation and growth kinetics for high conversion – JMA equation 
Nucleation and growth kinetics for high conversion – JMA equation 

Nucleation and growth kinetics with site saturation 
Nucleation and growth kinetics with site saturation 

Nucleation and growth kinetics with diffusion control 
Nucleation and growth kinetics with diffusion control 

Interpretations of JMA equation exponent factor n 
Interpretations of JMA equation exponent factor n 

Diffusion controlled 1D growth kinetics 
Diffusion controlled 1D growth kinetics 

Diffusion controlled shrinking core model 
Diffusion controlled shrinking core model 

Interface controlled shrinking core model 
Interface controlled shrinking core model 

Summary of kinetic models 
Summary of kinetic models 
Lecture 24 Example of SiC formation kinetics and mechanism 


Lecture 25 Expectations about solid state phase transformation 

